Country study

Money, love and identity: Initial findings from the National ECEC Workforce Study


Money, love and identity: Initial findings from the National ECEC Workforce Study shares the initial findings of a National Early Childhood Education and Care Workforce study – a three-year national study funded by the Australian Research Council. In addition to findings from the study, this report shares key takeaways from conversations during a workshop hosted by the researchers. Capturing responses from participants of this 76-delegate workshop, here you can find observations and insights into emerging themes and the implications they have for policy and practice.

This report reviews the following topics:
1. An overview of initial findings from the ECEC Workforce Study
2. Interesting and surprising findings about tensions in ECEC
3. A summary of participant responses to the study findings and other prioritized workforce topics
4. Key themes responding to the question – looking forward, in an ideal world, what is one ‘must have’ in a national ECEC Workforce Strategy?

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Supporting the Early Childhood Workforce at Scale: Community Health Workers and the Expansion of First 1000 Days Services in South Africa


The National Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy (NIECDP) (2015) is an important step in South Africa’s shift from a health system focused on curative, disease-based services to one based on prevention and health promotion. The NIECDP identifies a comprehensive vision of early childhood development (ECD) services to be delivered by 2030, seeking to strengthen and integrate these services across all government departments. While recognizing the Department of Health’s Community Health Workers (CHWs) present role in providing supportive health and nutrition services, the NIECDP envisages these CHWs playing a significant, and expanded, role in strengthening overall maternal and child developmental outcomes by providing parenting support and opportunities for early learning and stimulation through additional home visits and community-based activities for families and young children through the age of two, commonly defined as part of first 1000 days services. The evolving role of the CHW in ECD services is set against the backdrop of continued Primary Health Care Re-engineering efforts.


This study is intended to provide insight into how the Department of Health is endeavoring to implement the NIECDP, with particular focus on the role of CHW. It examines the experience of two provinces and aims to consider the implications for service delivery across the country, as well as provide recommendations to enable, prepare and support the CHW workforce to deliver on this expanded suite of early childhood services. Given that many countries are considering expanded roles of para-professionals such as CHWs, it is also hoped that this study will contribute further to the knowledge base around delivering integrated health and development services for young children across a range of contexts.

This study addresses the following primary research questions: 

  • What is the status of implementation of the first 1000 days services in the NIECDP by the Department of Health? 
  • What are the barriers and opportunities for the Community Health Worker to deliver the first 1000 days services outlined in the NIECDP? 
  • What lessons can be drawn from their experience? 

Vision for Specialised Child Protection Services in the Republic of Moldova


The Vision for Specialised Child Protection Services in the Republic of Moldova lays out a common vision on the system of child protection services and includes a variety of specialized services needed in order to form an integrated and coherent system to meet the complex needs of children victims and witnesses of child abuse and neglect.

  • This document looks at the core areas within child protection systems:
  • policies and standards;
  • programmes, services and implementers;
  • coordination and oversight;
  • resourcing; and
  • social norms.

In addition, key monitoring actions are proposed in order to increase the accountability of all those with responsibility for the safety and care of children.

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Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education


Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education outlines a framework for a funding strategy that will provide reliable, accessible high-quality early care and education for young children from birth to kindergarten entry, including a highly qualified and adequately compensated workforce that is consistent with the vision outlined in the 2015 report, Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation.

The recommendations of this report are based on essential features of child development and early learning, and on principles for high-quality professional practice at the levels of individual practitioners, practice environments, leadership, systems, policies, and resource allocation.

This report was published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. You can download the PDF version, read it online or buy it in print here.

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Early Childhood Workforce Index 2018


Early Childhood Workforce Index 2018 is the second edition of the biennial Early Childhood Workforce Index from the Center for the Study of Child Care Employment at UC Berkeley. This edition continues to track the status of the early childhood education workforce and related state policies in order to understand changes over time. Several new analyses, as well as updated policy indicators and recommendations, have been added. 

The chapters in this resource take a look at those working in the early childhood workforce, their economic security and the policies that impact them.

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Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The Early Childhood Workforce 25 Years after the National Child Care Staffing Study


Worthy Work, STILL Unlivable Wages: The Early Childhood Workforce 25 Years after the National Child Care Staffing Study offers a snapshot of today's early childhood teachers in the United States. The report takes a look through four lenses:

  • Then and Now: Trends in Wages, Education, and Turnover Among Early Childhood Teachers, 1989-2014A comparison of available evidence reveals the extent of change in center-based teachers’ wages, education, and rates of turnover over the past quarter century.
  • Economic Insecurity Among Early Childhood Teachers. New evidence reveals the serious consequences of inadequate compensation on this predominantly female, ethnically diverse workforce.
  • The Public Costs of Inadequate Compensation. An examination of how widely early childhood workers and their families use public benefits offers a first look at some of the hidden costs of the low wages endemic to this workforce.
  • Policy Efforts to Improve Early Childhood Teaching Jobs. An appraisal of state and national efforts to improve the quality of early care and education in the United States focuses on how adequately these have addressed the low wages of the teaching workforce.

The report also offers thoughts on paths forward and reinvigorating the national conversation on the status and working conditions of teaching staff.


"In the 25 years since the release of the National Child Care Staffing Study, combined developments in science, practice, and policy have dramatically shifted the context for discussions about the status of early childhood teaching jobs, and the importance of attracting and retaining a well-prepared workforce that is capable of nurturing young children’s learning, health and development. Three narrative elements of this changed early care and education landscape set the stage for the new evidence presented in this report:

  • A developmental story. Since 1989, we have gained exponentially greater knowledge of the powerful role of children’s earliest encounters with caregiving adults in setting a sturdy or fragile foundation for lifelong development.
  • An economic story. There is now a far more widespread appreciation for the wise investment that high-quality early care and education (ECE) constitutes for children, families, and society at large.
  • A policy story. For the first time since 1971, when national child care legislation made it all the way to a presidential veto, there is serious debate at the federal level, echoed in virtually every state, about the vital importance of improving the quality of early education, with vast implications for what we expect of the early childhood teaching workforce."

Supporting the Early childhood Workforce at Scale: Preschool Education in Ukraine


This study, the second in this series, focuses on the role of preschool teachers in Ukraine. The country, with a predominantly public network of preschool education, has achieved coverage for a significant proportion of the population.

This study, the second in this series, focuses on the role of preschool teachers in Ukraine. The country, with a predominantly public network of preschool education, has achieved coverage for a significant proportion of the population. Nevertheless, it struggles to meet demand and ensure quality of services. In addition, Ukraine is at a unique moment where increasing attention is being paid in the country to improving the quality of preschool education and supporting inclusion, which have been elevated in recent policy reforms. Taking into account the significance of preschool teachers to the system of preschool education, this study aims to gain a better understanding of their experiences, including their backgrounds, the support that they receive, as well as the challenges that they encounter.

By illustrating the experiences of preschool teachers in Ukraine and identifying the size and scope of the challenges they face, it is hoped that this study will support officials within the Ministry of Education and Science (Ministerstvo osvity i nauky) in Ukraine as well as local education departments to strengthen and support preschool personnel through targeted policies and programs and contribute to the knowledge base around the early childhood workforce.


The Early Childhood Workforce Initiative

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Kindergarten teachers' perceptions on in-service training and impact on classroom practice


Professional development is essential for early years teachers. Recognizing this fact, the Romanian education system aims to promote high quality professional development programs for teachers in order to improve their work. This study investigated kindergarten teachers’ perceptions of their in-service training programs; including the impact these programs had on their professional development processes and classroom practices. Eighty-four kindergarten teachers responded to an online, structured questionnaire focused on:

  • activities considered necessary for teacher training programs;
  • factors that influence the level of professional development;
  • types of activities based on programs that may influence classroom practice;
  • the level at which programs focused on specific aspects of educational practice; and
  • aspects that might influence the teacher's educational practice.

Findings show a significant difference between the perceptions of beginners and those with more than 10 years experience. While the new teachers tend to focus more on the visibility and status to the profession, more experienced teachers focus on approach on professionalization.

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The early years workforce: a fragmented picture


The early years workforce: a fragmented picture, produced by the Education Policy Institute, gathered administrative data about early years providers and staff in England. The aim of this report was to create a clearer picture of the demographics, pay and qualification levels of the early years workforce. Further, the report set out to understand how these characteristics vary across school-based settings, private, voluntary and independent providers and childminders.

This project used readily available, official resources in order to generate new researched questions that require additional analysis. The early years workforce: a fragmented picture provides a glance into early years provision in England, data about the workforce and the implications for children in funded provision.

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2017 Home Visiting Yearbook


2017 Home Visiting Yearbook is one of the first publications from the National Home Visiting Resource Center. It was developed with the recognition that, as many communities have implemented home visiting models aimed at improving outcomes for children and families, there has not been a comprehensive overview of how home visiting is across the country. This resource aims to inform readers as they make decisions in policy and practice. The following critical questions are addressed: 

Where do home visiting programs operate? 
How many families and children are being served by home visiting, and how many more could benefit? 
Who develops and administers home visiting? 
Who funds home visiting?

This first edition presents the most complete data available on home visiting in the United States.

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